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Przez cały rok we wszystkie dni tygodnia - serdecznie zapraszamy!

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Inclusions in Baltic amber have always been treated in a special way. Currently, they are sought after, admired, valued. They are also the subject of scientific research. They should be treated with due respect, because they conceal a "life" from many millions of years ago.

Let's start with explaining what are the inclusions in Baltic amber? So, the inclusion in amber is called everything that got to it naturally, when 40 million years ago the resin was abundantly flowing from the trees. They are mainly plants and animals that lived in the amber forest, but not only. They can also be air bubbles, drops of water, dust, sand or pyrite crystals.

Ambers containing inclusions are extremely valuable and provide an invaluable source of information for paleontologists and paleobotanists. When conducting research on inclusions, you can reconstruct the composition of amber forests, identify insects and small animals. The age of inclusion is dated to the age of amber in which they have been preserved. Also noteworthy is the fact that completely different inclusions have been preserved in Baltic amber, others in Dominican or Lebanese amber, and still others in the Colombian copal. First of all, these differences result from the fact that plants or animals existing in the time of the creation of eg Lebanese amber died out until the birth of Baltic amber.

The animal inclusions dominate in the Baltic amber nuggets. First of all, insects are found whose size does not exceed one centimeter. Very rare insects are found. Based on many years of palaeontology research, we can certainly say that birds, reptiles and mammals lived in the burstsy forest. The proof of this are various inclusions, among others Mammal hair, lizards, snail shells or bird feathers. In amber lumps you can also find characteristic dents, which resemble the footprints of animals with their appearance.

Plant inclusions are quite rare and account for only about three percent of all organic inclusions found. Based on the found fragments of bark, wood, flowers and spores, leaves and needles, it was established that about 215 plant species lived in the amber forest. It is impossible to list all of them here, but for example they were sequoias, date palms, oaks, chestnuts, olive and cinnamon trees, maples, wild wine, ferns, grasses, tea bushes, mosses, lichens, fungi and many species of pinewood trees.

Amber inclusions enjoy great popularity, which is why amber with "life trails" achieve much higher prices. Hence? The most common phenomenon is the creation of "artificial" inclusions, from time immemorial, various animals with lizards, including crabs have been embedded in amber. It is a forgery, and the unconscious customer will buy everything. Most often these are inclusions embedded in plastic, but unfortunately there are also perfect counterfeits, more and more difficult to detect. For example, they can be properly crafted contemporary organisms immersed in pressed amber. How not to be deceived? How to protect yourself against this? If you want to buy inclusions, you should have minimal knowledge about amber and the inclusions themselves, and purchase in checked and recommended stores, requesting a certificate of authenticity.

If you want to get to know the subject of inclusion at least, and see for yourself fragments of the world from millions of years ago, we invite you to visit the Amber Museum in Krakow and the exhibition "Amber - its beauty and history". You're welcome!

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Today, we all remember the murdered president of Gdańsk, Paweł Adamowicz, stressing how much he did for his beloved city for over 20 years of the presidency. With this amount of accomplishments, the fact that it was during the time of His presidency that Gdańsk became the World Capital of Amber disappears.

"Gdańsk is the most wonderful city in the world" - this is one of his last sentences spoken on the stage of the Great Orchestra of Christmas Charity in Gdańsk. It is difficult not to admit to him, observing how fantastically the city has developed over the last two decades. One of the pillars on which it was consciously built was - and we believe that it will still be - Baltic amber. Amber, with whom Gdańsk and Poland have been associated for a long time, and which thanks to numerous promotional activities made Gdańsk an unquestionable World Capital of Amber.

Such a name - Gdańsk - the World Capital of Amber - has a project aiming to promote Baltic amber and to popularize knowledge about it. The project implemented by the President's Office for City Promotion includes many different events, of which the most important are the AMBER LOOK Trends & Styles Fashion and Amber Gala during the Amberif International Trade Fair of Amber, Jewelery and Gemstones (in cooperation with the Gdańsk International Fair), where they are presented the latest collections of fashion and jewelery designers; International Amber Workshops (in cooperation with the National Amber Chamber of Commerce), during which artists from different countries will learn about amber and the secrets of its processing - as a result, often including it into their favorite stones; "Trend Book" publication, which since 2011 systematizes information necessary to forecast stylistic trends and use them in the design of amber jewelery (the initiative of the city, the Academy of Fine Arts and the National Chamber of Amber); numerous exhibitions - including the last one, "Baltic Amber. Tradition and innovation ", which is a specific documentation of all significant achievements in the field of modern amber industry. Since the project "Gdańsk - the World Capital of Amber" to the city development strategy, the amber ideas that were born in Gdańsk, but often covered the whole country (such as signing a letter of intent between the parczew poviat and the municipality of Gdańsk and the amber industry organizations) in the field of using deposits in the Lublin province or the Forum of Cities of the Amber Route), and sometimes even the world (eg the World Amber Council), there were many more. Not all of them are continued, but all together strengthened Gdańsk's unique position as the World Capital of Amber and Poland - a country commonly and positively associated with this stone. "Amber is our competitive advantage" - Paweł Adamowicz used to say and knew how to use this advantage skillfully.

"Thanks to Mr. President, we felt that someone was interested in us and our affairs. The personal commitment and initiative of the head of Gdańsk led to the creation of, inter alia, the declaration of good amber craftsmanship, the opening of the Amber Museum, commissioning of the amber plenipotentiary, implementation of the regulation regulating the lease of urban land for exploration of amber deposits, and the construction of a modern Amber Expo exhibition facility. Mr. President was a real Gdańsker who felt personally responsible for his city, and his greatest treasure - amber - was very important to him. It is thanks to the favor of the President that industry organizations supporting the dynamic development of the industry and the promotion of the Gdańsk goldsmith school have been developed all over the world "- recalls Adam Pstrągowski, president of the board of S & A S.A.

For many years, Paweł Adamowicz awarded amber jewelery every year to medals of the President of Gdańsk, thanking them in this way for their merits in the promotion of amber and Gdańsk - the World Capital of Amber. Today, unexpectedly and too early, the time has come to thank Him for the invaluable contribution in this field - is there any medal that could express the gratitude of the amber industry ...?


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      Today's article presents another outstanding artist of the amber world, cooperating with the Amber Museum in Krakow and the galleries of Borunia. We invite you to familiarize yourself with the figure of Jan Pomianowski - an artist whose jewelry even has a royal pair.

     Jan Pomianowski was born in Gdynia, but for over twenty years he lives and creates in Kashubia. He graduated in painting at the State Higher School of Fine Arts, currently functioning as the Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk.

      For the quarter-century associated with the jewelery industry, he constantly develops new collections, in which he often modifies style, materials, concepts, and distinctions. Each jewelery, therefore, has new features, which makes the collections of Jan Pomianowski characterized by so often sought-after uniqueness.

      The artist in the design and creation of jewelry often draws inspiration from the world of fairy tales, fairy tales, as well as from his personal experiences. An example of this is the history of the ring with the image of an owl sitting on a branch carved in amber. Owls remembered from the earliest childhood, because living in a tree adjacent to his family home. The most likely effect of such an approach to work are emotions, and it's the positive emotions that one experiences when dealing with this jewelry. In addition to the extraordinary imagination, the artist is also characterized by reliability, precision and the ability to choose the way of implementation to the concept. Ready jewelery therefore consists of detailed elements, perfectly matched to the whole, creating a unique, handmade product. All items are color and functionally matched. This makes the artist's works, in addition to the artistic function, can also be practical. A great example is a set for shaving by Jan Pomianowski, consisting of a bowl, razors with a replaceable blade and a brush with natural badger hair (the product is available in our gallery).

      The involvement of the artist in his work reveals his active participation in many of the most important fairs and events in the jewelery world. Jan Pomianowski participates in the Amberif, Inhorgenta and Tucson fairs.

      An interesting anecdote is the fact that during the visit of the Norwegian royal couple in Poland in 2012, the then presidential couple of the State of Komorowski donated to JKM Sonja a set by Jan Pomianowski. This set was named after the queen of Poland - Anna Jagiellon and comes from the series "Big Queens".

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     "Time and health are two valuable treasures that we do not recognize and we do not appreciate until they are exhausted"

Walter Disney

     Amber is an unusual resinous mineral which, apart from its indisputable aesthetic properties, has been the subject of interest for health professionals, aesthetic medicine and cosmetologists for many years. In order to reach the beginning of the analysis of amber compounds with medicine, one should go back to antiquity, where amber was widely used in folk medicine [1,2]. It was thought that it protects against fever, tonsillitis or sore throat. In the Arab world, he was a panacea, considered to be effective in various kinds of ailments [3]. Amber was used in various forms, solid, liquid, powdered or resin (after heating).

     One of the breakthrough dates is the year 1546, when G. Agricola, a German mineralogist and physician, obtained succinic acid via dry distillation [4]. Today, it is a well-studied substance and widely used in medicine or cosmetology. Baltic amber contains about 3-8% of it, mainly in external weathered or "amber bark".

      Succinic acid is a natural catalyst for cellular transformations and can therefore have significant properties for our health. Scientific research confirms the action of acid as a biostimulant. It stimulates the nervous system, regulates the functioning of the kidneys and intestines, is an anti-inflammatory and antitoxic agent. It can also be effective in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, bronchitis, rheumatic diseases and asthma [3].

      Amber is also often used for the production of tinctures, which may be used for prevention of myocardial pain, problems with blood circulation, blood pressure or heart failure [3,5].

      Whereas modern cosmetology uses the bactericidal and antioxidant properties of amber. Succinic acid can act as a means of slowing or completely inhibiting the loss of ions, including potassium.

      Ointments, oils and amber creams are created (for rheumatic, asthmatic or irritation). On the basis of amber, whole lines of preparations for face, body and hair care are produced. They support the fight against bacteria and free radicals, and mitigate the effects of burns and insect bites [3]. Creams improve the hydration and greasiness of the skin, increase its firmness and elasticity. They clearly reduce the roughness of the skin and the depth of wrinkles, regenerate the tired skin, stimulate its metabolism and prevent the formation of free radicals. Cosmetics are also attributed to soothing anxiety and nerves [3].

      The use of amber for our health is therefore extremely wide. Both for our physical and mental health. In addition, beautiful amber jewelery can improve our appearance, shape our image, and thus affect social perception and well-being [6,7,8].

   We cordially invite you to visit the Amber Museum in Krakow.



[1] Kosmowska-Ceranowicz B. (2012). Bursztyn w Polsce i na świecie. Warszawa: UW.

[2] Bursztynowe inspiracje. Pomorska regionalna organizacja turystyczna. Pobrano ze strony: http://ustka.travel/flipbooks/pdf/bursztyn_prev_12cvt6jc48plfq2yxyez3q.pdf

[3] LITOTERAPIA Bursztyn - najstarsze lekarstwo. Łyczkowski K. Cukrzyca a zdrowie.

[4] Koziorowska L. (1984). Badania nieorganicznego składu chemicznego bursztynu. Archeologia Polski t.XXIX, s.207-235.

[5] Ogrodnik Z. (2008). Nalewki na zdrowie. Białystok: Studio Astropsychologii.

[6] Zaleśkiewicz, T. (2012), Symboliczna natura pieniędzy: ujęcie psychologiczne. Chowanna, nr specjalny, s. 109-121.

[7] Cialdini R. (2013). Wywieranie wpływu na ludzi. Teoria i praktyka. Gdańsk: GWP.

[8] Wojciszke B., (2004). Człowiek wśród ludzi. Zarys psychologii społecznej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

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