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Inclusions in Baltic amber have always been treated in a special way. Currently, they are sought after, admired, valued. They are also the subject of scientific research. They should be treated with due respect, because they conceal a "life" from many millions of years ago.

Let's start with explaining what are the inclusions in Baltic amber? So, the inclusion in amber is called everything that got to it naturally, when 40 million years ago the resin was abundantly flowing from the trees. They are mainly plants and animals that lived in the amber forest, but not only. They can also be air bubbles, drops of water, dust, sand or pyrite crystals.

Ambers containing inclusions are extremely valuable and provide an invaluable source of information for paleontologists and paleobotanists. When conducting research on inclusions, you can reconstruct the composition of amber forests, identify insects and small animals. The age of inclusion is dated to the age of amber in which they have been preserved. Also noteworthy is the fact that completely different inclusions have been preserved in Baltic amber, others in Dominican or Lebanese amber, and still others in the Colombian copal. First of all, these differences result from the fact that plants or animals existing in the time of the creation of eg Lebanese amber died out until the birth of Baltic amber.

The animal inclusions dominate in the Baltic amber nuggets. First of all, insects are found whose size does not exceed one centimeter. Very rare insects are found. Based on many years of palaeontology research, we can certainly say that birds, reptiles and mammals lived in the burstsy forest. The proof of this are various inclusions, among others Mammal hair, lizards, snail shells or bird feathers. In amber lumps you can also find characteristic dents, which resemble the footprints of animals with their appearance.

Plant inclusions are quite rare and account for only about three percent of all organic inclusions found. Based on the found fragments of bark, wood, flowers and spores, leaves and needles, it was established that about 215 plant species lived in the amber forest. It is impossible to list all of them here, but for example they were sequoias, date palms, oaks, chestnuts, olive and cinnamon trees, maples, wild wine, ferns, grasses, tea bushes, mosses, lichens, fungi and many species of pinewood trees.

Amber inclusions enjoy great popularity, which is why amber with "life trails" achieve much higher prices. Hence? The most common phenomenon is the creation of "artificial" inclusions, from time immemorial, various animals with lizards, including crabs have been embedded in amber. It is a forgery, and the unconscious customer will buy everything. Most often these are inclusions embedded in plastic, but unfortunately there are also perfect counterfeits, more and more difficult to detect. For example, they can be properly crafted contemporary organisms immersed in pressed amber. How not to be deceived? How to protect yourself against this? If you want to buy inclusions, you should have minimal knowledge about amber and the inclusions themselves, and purchase in checked and recommended stores, requesting a certificate of authenticity.

If you want to get to know the subject of inclusion at least, and see for yourself fragments of the world from millions of years ago, we invite you to visit the Amber Museum in Krakow and the exhibition "Amber - its beauty and history". You're welcome!

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     Amber is one of the oldest and most popular materials used in jewelry, moreover, it is the first decorative mineral used on a mass scale in history. It was known in antiquity, being the object of trade for the majority of Europeans living then. The transport of contemporary amber went through a large part of Europe, the so-called "amber trail".

     Amber is an element of Polish culture, as evidenced by even the largest mineral trade fair in the world, held every year in Gdansk, in addition, Poland is the world's largest producer of amber jewelery, and the products are popular all over the world. The popularity of resin that has been preserved for centuries, as well as the prestige and quality of amber jewelery, means that there is still a lot of demand for it. Unfortunately, the opportunity to trade in artificial amber is also popular. So how to distinguish real mineral from imitation?

     Real, natural amber has special physical and chemical properties. Some of them can be easily checked in home conditions, and some require specialized tests.

The most important features of amber:

amber is light, but heavier than the weight of water, amber floats in salt water. Therefore, the home method of verification may be a brine technique, which consists of salting the water and throwing amber into it - it will float.

- the so-called. musk breakthrough - chipped amber is associated with a clam shell or has a stepped structure.

- another method of verification is the burning of amber. The ignited amber burns, emitting a characteristic resinous smell. An interesting fact is that one of the names of the mineral - Bernstein "burning stone" comes from this property. Baltic amber should smell nice, pleasant resinous scent, kapals have an intense, aromatic scent, and imitations smell like plastics. The resinous scent is also felt when a hot needle is applied to a real succinite. In addition, small, pulling threads will appear on the needle.

- amber has electrifying properties, so when rubbing it with a suitable material, eg wool, we stimulate these properties and amber can attract small objects. It is interesting that these electrical properties are reflected in the scientific nomenclature, because the electron from Greek means amber.

Baltic amber on the Mohs hardness scale is located between plaster and calcite. On the scratched amber surface, a white crack and fine crumbs form, while plastics after scratching form spirally coiling chips.

Baltic amber is warm and light to the touch, imitation is usually heavier and cold.

Amber reacts poorly with solvents (eg acetone) while the imitations quickly dull and the surface becomes sticky.

     Thus, there are possibilities to verify the naturalness of amber in home conditions. However, they are not always 100% effective or safe, arson lighting can damage the natural beauty of jewelry, and they are not parameterized methods.

     One of the most effective and used in the world research methods of succinite and other resins is infrared absorption spectroscopy. In Poland, infrared spectra are obtained by two methods - transmission and reflection.

     In the Amber Laboratory operating at the Amber Museum in Krakow, the reflection method is used in the spectrometer with the ATR attachment. It is a fast, effective and most importantly non-invasive method of identifying Baltic amber as a raw material and products made of it. Infrared spectrometry includes the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in the range between the visible region and the microwave area, i.e. between 14300 and 200 cm-1 (0.7-50 μm). Infrared absorption spectroscopy uses the phenomenon of selective absorption of infrared radiation by various substances. Absorption takes place when the frequency of infrared radiation vibrations is equal to the frequency of natural vibrations of their atoms or their coordination groups.

     The effect of the analysis is a certain diagnosis of the authenticity of amber. San also provides the basis for issuing the certificate of authenticity. Therefore, we invite you to purchase our certified, and above all natural, pros. In addition, our museum offers the opportunity to test the authenticity of products and conduct expert opinions for individuals, companies, offices and institutions. We invite you to cooperation!

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      Today's article presents another outstanding artist of the amber world, cooperating with the Amber Museum in Krakow and the galleries of Borunia. We invite you to familiarize yourself with the figure of Jan Pomianowski - an artist whose jewelry even has a royal pair.

     Jan Pomianowski was born in Gdynia, but for over twenty years he lives and creates in Kashubia. He graduated in painting at the State Higher School of Fine Arts, currently functioning as the Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk.

      For the quarter-century associated with the jewelery industry, he constantly develops new collections, in which he often modifies style, materials, concepts, and distinctions. Each jewelery, therefore, has new features, which makes the collections of Jan Pomianowski characterized by so often sought-after uniqueness.

      The artist in the design and creation of jewelry often draws inspiration from the world of fairy tales, fairy tales, as well as from his personal experiences. An example of this is the history of the ring with the image of an owl sitting on a branch carved in amber. Owls remembered from the earliest childhood, because living in a tree adjacent to his family home. The most likely effect of such an approach to work are emotions, and it's the positive emotions that one experiences when dealing with this jewelry. In addition to the extraordinary imagination, the artist is also characterized by reliability, precision and the ability to choose the way of implementation to the concept. Ready jewelery therefore consists of detailed elements, perfectly matched to the whole, creating a unique, handmade product. All items are color and functionally matched. This makes the artist's works, in addition to the artistic function, can also be practical. A great example is a set for shaving by Jan Pomianowski, consisting of a bowl, razors with a replaceable blade and a brush with natural badger hair (the product is available in our gallery).

      The involvement of the artist in his work reveals his active participation in many of the most important fairs and events in the jewelery world. Jan Pomianowski participates in the Amberif, Inhorgenta and Tucson fairs.

      An interesting anecdote is the fact that during the visit of the Norwegian royal couple in Poland in 2012, the then presidential couple of the State of Komorowski donated to JKM Sonja a set by Jan Pomianowski. This set was named after the queen of Poland - Anna Jagiellon and comes from the series "Big Queens".

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     Jacek Baron's new collection - he seduces you from the first look.

      Sometimes one look is enough to let you be seduced by the charm of sophisticated jewelry. Instead of struggling with this feeling, it is better to enjoy the senses with the beauty of the form, nature and artistry of the artist.

      This is exactly what the latest collection of Jacek Baron offers. It is important that there are no two identical forms, and the uniqueness of the products is emphasized by the artist with subtle and meticulously made bonds of the highest quality metals and ores.

      In the latest collection, Jacek Baron eagerly reaches for floral and zoomorphic motifs, and his hallmark is modern and avant-garde bindings that surprise with original concepts. Jewelry is hand-made, which makes it possible to extract a unique splendor and the unique beauty of amber.

      The Jacek Baron brand is a synonym of modern design and elegance. By purchasing signed jewelry, you can be sure of the uniqueness of the product.

      Unique jewelry requires a unique packaging. Each element bearing the name of Jacek Baron is placed in a specially designed wood with an amber-like structure. Inside there is a certificate confirming the authenticity of the model.

      We invite you to successful purchases of the latest collection!



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 Today's article aims to present the silhouette of Jacek Baron, one of the precursors of avant-garde amber jewelery, not only in Poland, but also in the world. We invite you to the history of an innovative amber art, dating back to the 1980s.

      Jacek Baron has been designing and creating jewelery for over 30 years, and today his works are a considerable resource for several important muses and art galleries, including our Krakow Amber Museum.

      Today's hero began in the 80s, when there was a fashion for amber "eyes" in frames of blackened silver with floral motifs. During this period of drought on the market and the lack of modern jewelery art, there was the idea of creating something groundbreaking. Jacek Baron introduced a combination of silver sculptural forms with modern designs, previously unheard of, often of caricature size. Amber in these works complemented and emphasized form. A new approach to amber art has resulted in positive reviews both in Poland and abroad.

      In addition to shape, form or size, the art of Jacek Baron from the beginning distinguished the uniqueness and precision of the finish. It is so unique that one of the cuts of stone used by the artist bears the name "Baron Cut." The author individually adjusts the cut and binding, which makes each of his jewelry unique.

      In addition, the artist created a collection of mechanical jewelry. This means that amber in the jewelry of Jacek Baron creates modes that spin. Imagine a jewelry that can be set in motion! It is possible and available at your fingertips in our museum.

      The described achievements of Jacek Baron in the field of jewelery make that the author should be boldly regarded as one of the most important artists of the amber world. It is also worth emphasizing that they are not mass-produced works, and each product has its unique contribution, which emphasizes the uniqueness and individuality of the offered works.

We invite you to read the latest collection of Jacek Baron, about which you can read in the article: "The new collection of Jacek Baron."

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