Inclusions in Baltic amber have always been treated in a special way. Currently, they are sought after, admired, valued. They are also the subject of scientific research. They should be treated with due respect, because they conceal a "life" from many millions of years ago.
Let's start with explaining what are the inclusions in Baltic amber? So, the inclusion in amber is called everything that got to it naturally, when 40 million years ago the resin was abundantly flowing from the trees. They are mainly plants and animals that lived in the amber forest, but not only. They can also be air bubbles, drops of water, dust, sand or pyrite crystals.
Ambers containing inclusions are extremely valuable and provide an invaluable source of information for paleontologists and paleobotanists. When conducting research on inclusions, you can reconstruct the composition of amber forests, identify insects and small animals. The age of inclusion is dated to the age of amber in which they have been preserved. Also noteworthy is the fact that completely different inclusions have been preserved in Baltic amber, others in Dominican or Lebanese amber, and still others in the Colombian copal. First of all, these differences result from the fact that plants or animals existing in the time of the creation of eg Lebanese amber died out until the birth of Baltic amber.
The animal inclusions dominate in the Baltic amber nuggets. First of all, insects are found whose size does not exceed one centimeter. Very rare insects are found. Based on many years of palaeontology research, we can certainly say that birds, reptiles and mammals lived in the burstsy forest. The proof of this are various inclusions, among others Mammal hair, lizards, snail shells or bird feathers. In amber lumps you can also find characteristic dents, which resemble the footprints of animals with their appearance.
Plant inclusions are quite rare and account for only about three percent of all organic inclusions found. Based on the found fragments of bark, wood, flowers and spores, leaves and needles, it was established that about 215 plant species lived in the amber forest. It is impossible to list all of them here, but for example they were sequoias, date palms, oaks, chestnuts, olive and cinnamon trees, maples, wild wine, ferns, grasses, tea bushes, mosses, lichens, fungi and many species of pinewood trees.
Amber inclusions enjoy great popularity, which is why amber with "life trails" achieve much higher prices. Hence? The most common phenomenon is the creation of "artificial" inclusions, from time immemorial, various animals with lizards, including crabs have been embedded in amber. It is a forgery, and the unconscious customer will buy everything. Most often these are inclusions embedded in plastic, but unfortunately there are also perfect counterfeits, more and more difficult to detect. For example, they can be properly crafted contemporary organisms immersed in pressed amber. How not to be deceived? How to protect yourself against this? If you want to buy inclusions, you should have minimal knowledge about amber and the inclusions themselves, and purchase in checked and recommended stores, requesting a certificate of authenticity.
If you want to get to know the subject of inclusion at least, and see for yourself fragments of the world from millions of years ago, we invite you to visit the Amber Museum in Krakow and the exhibition "Amber - its beauty and history". You're welcome!
Today's article presents another outstanding artist of the amber world, cooperating with the Amber Museum in Krakow and the galleries of Borunia. We invite you to familiarize yourself with the figure of Jan Pomianowski - an artist whose jewelry even has a royal pair.
Jan Pomianowski was born in Gdynia, but for over twenty years he lives and creates in Kashubia. He graduated in painting at the State Higher School of Fine Arts, currently functioning as the Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk.
For the quarter-century associated with the jewelery industry, he constantly develops new collections, in which he often modifies style, materials, concepts, and distinctions. Each jewelery, therefore, has new features, which makes the collections of Jan Pomianowski characterized by so often sought-after uniqueness.
The artist in the design and creation of jewelry often draws inspiration from the world of fairy tales, fairy tales, as well as from his personal experiences. An example of this is the history of the ring with the image of an owl sitting on a branch carved in amber. Owls remembered from the earliest childhood, because living in a tree adjacent to his family home. The most likely effect of such an approach to work are emotions, and it's the positive emotions that one experiences when dealing with this jewelry. In addition to the extraordinary imagination, the artist is also characterized by reliability, precision and the ability to choose the way of implementation to the concept. Ready jewelery therefore consists of detailed elements, perfectly matched to the whole, creating a unique, handmade product. All items are color and functionally matched. This makes the artist's works, in addition to the artistic function, can also be practical. A great example is a set for shaving by Jan Pomianowski, consisting of a bowl, razors with a replaceable blade and a brush with natural badger hair (the product is available in our gallery).
The involvement of the artist in his work reveals his active participation in many of the most important fairs and events in the jewelery world. Jan Pomianowski participates in the Amberif, Inhorgenta and Tucson fairs.
An interesting anecdote is the fact that during the visit of the Norwegian royal couple in Poland in 2012, the then presidential couple of the State of Komorowski donated to JKM Sonja a set by Jan Pomianowski. This set was named after the queen of Poland - Anna Jagiellon and comes from the series "Big Queens".
"Time and health are two valuable treasures that we do not recognize and we do not appreciate until they are exhausted"
Amber is an unusual resinous mineral which, apart from its indisputable aesthetic properties, has been the subject of interest for health professionals, aesthetic medicine and cosmetologists for many years. In order to reach the beginning of the analysis of amber compounds with medicine, one should go back to antiquity, where amber was widely used in folk medicine [1,2]. It was thought that it protects against fever, tonsillitis or sore throat. In the Arab world, he was a panacea, considered to be effective in various kinds of ailments . Amber was used in various forms, solid, liquid, powdered or resin (after heating).
One of the breakthrough dates is the year 1546, when G. Agricola, a German mineralogist and physician, obtained succinic acid via dry distillation . Today, it is a well-studied substance and widely used in medicine or cosmetology. Baltic amber contains about 3-8% of it, mainly in external weathered or "amber bark".
Succinic acid is a natural catalyst for cellular transformations and can therefore have significant properties for our health. Scientific research confirms the action of acid as a biostimulant. It stimulates the nervous system, regulates the functioning of the kidneys and intestines, is an anti-inflammatory and antitoxic agent. It can also be effective in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, bronchitis, rheumatic diseases and asthma .
Amber is also often used for the production of tinctures, which may be used for prevention of myocardial pain, problems with blood circulation, blood pressure or heart failure [3,5].
Whereas modern cosmetology uses the bactericidal and antioxidant properties of amber. Succinic acid can act as a means of slowing or completely inhibiting the loss of ions, including potassium.
Ointments, oils and amber creams are created (for rheumatic, asthmatic or irritation). On the basis of amber, whole lines of preparations for face, body and hair care are produced. They support the fight against bacteria and free radicals, and mitigate the effects of burns and insect bites . Creams improve the hydration and greasiness of the skin, increase its firmness and elasticity. They clearly reduce the roughness of the skin and the depth of wrinkles, regenerate the tired skin, stimulate its metabolism and prevent the formation of free radicals. Cosmetics are also attributed to soothing anxiety and nerves .
The use of amber for our health is therefore extremely wide. Both for our physical and mental health. In addition, beautiful amber jewelery can improve our appearance, shape our image, and thus affect social perception and well-being [6,7,8].
We cordially invite you to visit the Amber Museum in Krakow.
 Kosmowska-Ceranowicz B. (2012). Bursztyn w Polsce i na świecie. Warszawa: UW.
 Bursztynowe inspiracje. Pomorska regionalna organizacja turystyczna. Pobrano ze strony: http://ustka.travel/flipbooks/pdf/bursztyn_prev_12cvt6jc48plfq2yxyez3q.pdf
 LITOTERAPIA Bursztyn - najstarsze lekarstwo. Łyczkowski K. Cukrzyca a zdrowie.
 Koziorowska L. (1984). Badania nieorganicznego składu chemicznego bursztynu. Archeologia Polski t.XXIX, s.207-235.
 Ogrodnik Z. (2008). Nalewki na zdrowie. Białystok: Studio Astropsychologii.
 Zaleśkiewicz, T. (2012), Symboliczna natura pieniędzy: ujęcie psychologiczne. Chowanna, nr specjalny, s. 109-121.
 Cialdini R. (2013). Wywieranie wpływu na ludzi. Teoria i praktyka. Gdańsk: GWP.
 Wojciszke B., (2004). Człowiek wśród ludzi. Zarys psychologii społecznej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Jacek Baron's new collection - he seduces you from the first look.
Sometimes one look is enough to let you be seduced by the charm of sophisticated jewelry. Instead of struggling with this feeling, it is better to enjoy the senses with the beauty of the form, nature and artistry of the artist.
This is exactly what the latest collection of Jacek Baron offers. It is important that there are no two identical forms, and the uniqueness of the products is emphasized by the artist with subtle and meticulously made bonds of the highest quality metals and ores.
In the latest collection, Jacek Baron eagerly reaches for floral and zoomorphic motifs, and his hallmark is modern and avant-garde bindings that surprise with original concepts. Jewelry is hand-made, which makes it possible to extract a unique splendor and the unique beauty of amber.
The Jacek Baron brand is a synonym of modern design and elegance. By purchasing signed jewelry, you can be sure of the uniqueness of the product.
Unique jewelry requires a unique packaging. Each element bearing the name of Jacek Baron is placed in a specially designed wood with an amber-like structure. Inside there is a certificate confirming the authenticity of the model.
We invite you to successful purchases of the latest collection!
Today's article aims to present the silhouette of Jacek Baron, one of the precursors of avant-garde amber jewelery, not only in Poland, but also in the world. We invite you to the history of an innovative amber art, dating back to the 1980s.
Jacek Baron has been designing and creating jewelery for over 30 years, and today his works are a considerable resource for several important muses and art galleries, including our Krakow Amber Museum.
Today's hero began in the 80s, when there was a fashion for amber "eyes" in frames of blackened silver with floral motifs. During this period of drought on the market and the lack of modern jewelery art, there was the idea of creating something groundbreaking. Jacek Baron introduced a combination of silver sculptural forms with modern designs, previously unheard of, often of caricature size. Amber in these works complemented and emphasized form. A new approach to amber art has resulted in positive reviews both in Poland and abroad.
In addition to shape, form or size, the art of Jacek Baron from the beginning distinguished the uniqueness and precision of the finish. It is so unique that one of the cuts of stone used by the artist bears the name "Baron Cut." The author individually adjusts the cut and binding, which makes each of his jewelry unique.
In addition, the artist created a collection of mechanical jewelry. This means that amber in the jewelry of Jacek Baron creates modes that spin. Imagine a jewelry that can be set in motion! It is possible and available at your fingertips in our museum.
The described achievements of Jacek Baron in the field of jewelery make that the author should be boldly regarded as one of the most important artists of the amber world. It is also worth emphasizing that they are not mass-produced works, and each product has its unique contribution, which emphasizes the uniqueness and individuality of the offered works.
We invite you to read the latest collection of Jacek Baron, about which you can read in the article: "The new collection of Jacek Baron."
Amber is one of the oldest and most popular materials used in jewelry, moreover, it is the first decorative mineral used on a mass scale in history. It was known in antiquity, being the object of trade for the majority of Europeans living then. The transport of contemporary amber went through a large part of Europe, the so-called "amber trail".
Amber is an element of Polish culture, as evidenced by even the largest mineral trade fair in the world, held every year in Gdansk, in addition, Poland is the world's largest producer of amber jewelery, and the products are popular all over the world. The popularity of resin that has been preserved for centuries, as well as the prestige and quality of amber jewelery, means that there is still a lot of demand for it. Unfortunately, the opportunity to trade in artificial amber is also popular. So how to distinguish real mineral from imitation?
Real, natural amber has special physical and chemical properties. Some of them can be easily checked in home conditions, and some require specialized tests.
The most important features of amber:
- amber is light, but heavier than the weight of water, amber floats in salt water. Therefore, the home method of verification may be a brine technique, which consists of salting the water and throwing amber into it - it will float.
- the so-called. musk breakthrough - chipped amber is associated with a clam shell or has a stepped structure.
- another method of verification is the burning of amber. The ignited amber burns, emitting a characteristic resinous smell. An interesting fact is that one of the names of the mineral - Bernstein "burning stone" comes from this property. Baltic amber should smell nice, pleasant resinous scent, kapals have an intense, aromatic scent, and imitations smell like plastics. The resinous scent is also felt when a hot needle is applied to a real succinite. In addition, small, pulling threads will appear on the needle.
- amber has electrifying properties, so when rubbing it with a suitable material, eg wool, we stimulate these properties and amber can attract small objects. It is interesting that these electrical properties are reflected in the scientific nomenclature, because the electron from Greek means amber.
- Baltic amber on the Mohs hardness scale is located between plaster and calcite. On the scratched amber surface, a white crack and fine crumbs form, while plastics after scratching form spirally coiling chips.
- Baltic amber is warm and light to the touch, imitation is usually heavier and cold.
- Amber reacts poorly with solvents (eg acetone) while the imitations quickly dull and the surface becomes sticky.
Thus, there are possibilities to verify the naturalness of amber in home conditions. However, they are not always 100% effective or safe, arson lighting can damage the natural beauty of jewelry, and they are not parameterized methods.
One of the most effective and used in the world research methods of succinite and other resins is infrared absorption spectroscopy. In Poland, infrared spectra are obtained by two methods - transmission and reflection.
In the Amber Laboratory operating at the Amber Museum in Krakow, the reflection method is used in the spectrometer with the ATR attachment. It is a fast, effective and most importantly non-invasive method of identifying Baltic amber as a raw material and products made of it. Infrared spectrometry includes the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in the range between the visible region and the microwave area, i.e. between 14300 and 200 cm-1 (0.7-50 μm). Infrared absorption spectroscopy uses the phenomenon of selective absorption of infrared radiation by various substances. Absorption takes place when the frequency of infrared radiation vibrations is equal to the frequency of natural vibrations of their atoms or their coordination groups.
The effect of the analysis is a certain diagnosis of the authenticity of amber. San also provides the basis for issuing the certificate of authenticity. Therefore, we invite you to purchase our certified, and above all natural, pros. In addition, our museum offers the opportunity to test the authenticity of products and conduct expert opinions for individuals, companies, offices and institutions. We invite you to cooperation!
"Nature is always smarter than human ideas" A. Kępiński
We cordially invite You to the summer garden of the Amber Museum at Św. Jana 2 in Cracow.
In the heart of the tourist city of Cracow, You will find a quiet and peaceful place where You can experience the history and culture of amber in the company of nature, flowers and beautiful greenery.
The garden is available every day from 10 to 20. We invite You for fresh coffee and cold drinks!
Facts and myths - amber color, in fact what?
Amber is the source of many mysteries and curiosities, concealing the history of our planet, which is why many myths and stereotypes surround this mineral. A special interest in the ore results not only from its history, but also from its unique appearance. For centuries fascinated by collectors and enjoys the eyes of enthusiasts around the world.
Amber color - but what is the color? I often hear that light brown, reddish, orange. The latter may, however, be more like a tea color, which corresponds to the cognac amber. Light-yellow, sunny, which sometimes takes on a more yellow-white color, is also well-known. Then we are dealing with milk amber. The difficulty in assessing and precisely defining the colors of amber results from the variety of this raw material. This stone can take on such colors as: cherry, green or blue and have different physical and chemical properties. Among these minerals can be found various stones of different transparency, different diameter of gas bubbles embedded in them, or different degree of weathering. Regardless of whether they are naturally shaped or expressed by the modernity and craftsmanship of the artist modifying this mineral, they are a kind of unique and rare.
To discuss the main color varieties of amber, it should be noted that the most common, and at the same time popular, color of Baltic amber is the cognac shade. It is a natural color, which in ancient times was the dominant raw material from other minerals. However, it can be regularly varied by artists. Today, cognac amber is often beautified by characteristic "scales", they are obtained in an autoclave during the heating process in the presence of gas, and then rapid cooling, as a result of which inside the cracks and scales will appear.
The natural shade is also a milky shade. It occurs practically in the whole range of tones - from white to yellow. The color results from differences in the internal structure of the mineral. Generally speaking, amber can occur in a transparent and opaque variety, which is determined by the presence of gas bubbles and their quantity. The transparent form is characterized by a lack of bubbles structure. Among the representatives of this variety, we find the so-called "trinket", honey amber, possibly with "cloud". Opaque variants, on the other hand, are characterized by the presence of gas bubbles in the structure. Those with more bubbles, about 900,000 bubbles per 1mm2 of amber, are white. The internal structure of such a stone obtains the character of foam, which creates a natural milk color, while it is still quite transparent and unmerged. With 25,000 bubbles on the 1mm2 surface, opaque yellow amber is formed.
Amber is an extraordinary and unusual color of amber. In this color, both natural and man-made ambers may be present. The natural green shade is the result of contamination of the mineral with plant detritus, called natural amber. There are numerous gas bubbles formed during the process of putrefaction of plants, and the color is earthy and greenish. This "nice" green color is the effect of modification by means of an autoclave or undercoat from the bottom with black paint.
Red, cherry or black amber are not natural but modified colors. They are obtained in an autoclave under the influence of high temperature and pressure in the presence of inhibitors. The exact process of obtaining them is unknown, because they are the secrets of technological processes.
Customers often ask for blue amber. But is there such amber? There is no such blue Baltic amber. It can only have a blue glow - these are pyrite crystals that pierce the surface. However, there are blue ambers on the market - but these may be, for example, Dominican amber mined on the island of Haiti. An interesting fact is that despite the uniqueness of its color, this amber is completely natural. However, mining difficulties make it less available and therefore more attractive and desirable on the market of precious stones.
We cordially invite you to our Borunia and Amber Museum galleries in Krakow, where specialists will present you with a collection of outstanding European amber jewelery, bringing you closer to the palette of amber colors!
Indians, Columbus, Caribbean, mountains, donkey transport and Jurassic Park. It all sounds like a beautiful journey full of adventures. This amazing journey and adventure takes the history of Dominican amber, one of the most beautiful and at the same time the most interesting fossil resin.
Dominican amber is derived deciduous trees and contains from 0 to 3% succinic acid, so much less than Baltic amber. It comes from oligocene, and thus occurred about 12 million years after Baltic amber, which is the oldest and most traditional mineral, already used in antiquity on a global scale. You will learn more about the history of Baltic amber from our previous articles, which I invite you to read.
Dominican Amber deposits are found on the island of Haiti, which belongs to Dominican Republic. The mineral is located in the mountains of North and East Cordilleras, at a height of up to around 2000 m. This makes the mining process extremely dangerous and extreme. Therefore, it is often necessary to help animals with amber, which is particularly useful for transporting the extracted amber. For this purpose, donkeys (Corday, Dittrich, 2009, Kosmowska- Ceranowicz, 1985). Dominican amber was known, among others, among the Indians, before Columbus's arrival at the end of the fifteenth century. In Europe, however, it appeared only after the Second World War (Weitschat, 2007).
After arriving from the highlands, in the valleys and lowlands, Dominican Amber becomes an object of trade and jewelery art. According to artists, but also succinite researchers (amber), the Dominican variety is one of the most attractive. Schlee (1978, for: Kosmowska- Ceranowicz, 1985) gives this variation the footnote "der Uberraschendste", which can be translated as "surprising", "sensational" (Kosmowska- Ceranowicz, 1985).
It is not without reason that it is very popular because it is very diverse, even in terms of color varieties. Among them, the most common are transparent and also from light yellow to shades of cognac, sometimes also red and green. Primarily valued and sought for species exhibiting intense fluorescence, including the rarest, and thus unusual and charming blue amber, which is an inspiration throughout the world (Kosmowska- Ceranowicz, 2012;). It is distinguished by its unusual color and at the same time it is harder than the others (Linati et al., 2005, Schlee, 1980), usually does not contain any inclusions. It is interesting that through the properties of blue amber, the inclusions contained in it would appear to be crumpled. This indicates a strong diagenetic change (the formation of a rock concise from loose rocks).
Interestingly, Dominican amber in other colors convinces with large collections of inclusions. Thanks to the unique transparency of Dominican amber, it's easy to see amazing plant and animal specimens, which are an object of fascination for tourists, researchers and artists. Already in the 1980s in Stuttgart, there were over 4500 specimens of this amber with inclusions (Kosmowska- Ceranowicz, 1985). Preserved unusual inclusions in Dominican amber were also a motivation for Stephen Spielberg in the production of the film "Jurassic Park". This famous director went to the Dominican Republic to be able to feelthe nature and beauty of amber at close quarters. The film shows that the amber specimen found with a mosquito covered with dinosaur blood was a great research material, from which a new organism was cloned on the basis of DNA. Unfortunately, there is no scientific confirmation in this field. Nevertheless, after watching this film, amber began to enjoy great popularity among Americans.
Domican amber is a revolution not only in the jewelery world and amber, but also in a sense made changes in the world of science. Originally, the name "amber" was reserved only for "our" Baltic amber, because it was a mineral from the Eocene period originating from the Baltic Sea region. After 1950, the name Amberwas introduced precisely for Dominican amber, which initiated the philosophy of naming fossil resins with the addition of geographical specialization (Matuszewska, 2009).
Corday A., Dittrich H. (2009). Amber – The Caribbean Approach. InColor, International Colored Gemstone Association, Fall/Winter, s. 1–6
Kosmowska-Ceranowicz B. (1985). Wiek i rozprzestrzenienie żywic kopalnych
w Polsce i na świecie oraz największe kolekcje inkluzji organicznych w bursztynie. Wiad. Entomol. t.6, nr 3-4, s.147-157.
Kosmowska-Ceranowicz B. (2012). Bursztyn w Polsce i na świecie. Warszawa: Uniwersytet Warszawski.
Matuszewska, A. (2009). Bursztyn bałtycki i inne żywice kopalne w świetle badań fizykochemicznych. Przegląd Geologiczny, vol. 57, nr 12, s.1078-1083,
Schlee D. (1980). Bernstein-Raritaeten (Farben, Strukturen, Fossilen, Handwerk). – 88 S. (mit 55 Farbtafeln); Staatl. Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart.
Weitschat W., (2007). Złoża bursztynu w Republice Dominikany i Meksyku.
W: Kosmowska-Ceranowicz B., Gierłowski W. (red.), Bursztyn - poglądy, opinie. Materiały z seminariów Amberif 2005-2009. Wyd. Międz. Stow. Bursztynników, Muzeum Ziemi PAN, Międz. Targi Gdańskie SA, Gdańsk - Warszawa, 2010, str. 49-54.
On 21-24 March 2018, the 25th International Amber, Jewelery and Jewelery Gemstones Fair AMBERIF was held for the 25th time. It is an extraordinary event, gathering artists, producers and businessmen in one place - the most important personalities of the amber world.
AMBERIF is the largest jewelry exhibition in Central and Eastern Europe. At the same time, it is one of the most important industry events in the world. The beginnings of AMBERIFU date back to the autumn of 1994, when the first edition of the fair took place. 49 exhibitors took part in it. At that time, several dozen traders from abroad gathered, as well as a large group of amber collectors. From year to year, the fair attracted an increasing number of amber sympathizers. This year's jubilee edition was attended by over 470 exhibitors from 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Estonia, France, India, Lithuania, Latvia, Germany, Turkey, Great Britain, Italy, the United States, as well as Poland. These were not only large jewelry companies, but also small studios.
The fair is accompanied by numerous workshops and exhibitions and a scientific symposium, this year under the name Symposium Amber. Science & Art. The aim was to present the state of current research on amber in four main trends: "Traces of life in amber", "Stylistics and technology of processing amber products in the III-I millennium BC: local and interregional perspective", "The most important information about research properties of amber and current aspects of amber mining ", as well as AMBER LOOK trends & styles' myths, collections and fashion, where the gathered audience could see collections prepared in combination of Polish fashion designers and amber jewelery makers. competitions: Amberif Design Award and Gedanensis.
The AMBERIF fair is of an industry nature. They are available to people and companies associated with amber industry, jewelery, trade and the production of jewelry and goldsmiths, with services and marketing related to art and the jewelery industry. Therefore, the AMBERIF Fair has been an object of interest for both Borunia Gallery and the Amber Museum for many years.
In our galleries you will find the best quality amber products, and qualified staff will be happy to answer any questions about amber, its origin, varieties or modifications. By selling amber jewelery, we propagate knowledge about amber among Polish clients as well as from many different corners of the world. The confirmation of the above words is the title of the Amber of the Year 2012 for the owner of the Borunia, Amber Museum and amber Museum website. Amber Museum and amber.com.pl Portal - Tomasz Mikołajczyk for long-term commercial activity in the amber industry and trade diligence as well as amber promotion through the Amber Portal.
Soon, on the shelves of our showrooms, unique products inspired by the latest trends and technologies in jewelery design will be presented, as well as classic ones with timeless designs. We invite you!